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Katherine Frank. Sexualities http: Email Alerts: It argues that the study of commercial sex — and here specifically of exotic dance — is itself culturally informed.

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Thus, there has been a great deal of studying in strip clubs, but less exploration of the ways that these venues, and those of us who study them, flubs implicated in larger social, cultural, political, economic, and intimate relationships, processes, and patterns of meaning. Keywords exotic dance, feminism, power, sex industry, strip clubs Katherine Frank University of Wisconsin, USA Thinking Critically about Strip Club Research Authors often claim that the literature on exotic dance Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area sparse or that Lovers silverdale Vanersborg subject is not taken seriously in academia.

However, this literature contains little information about strip club Wahab, Stephanie, Baker, Lynda M., Smith, Julie M., Cooper, Kristy, Lerum. Occupations in the hierarchy of strip clubs are gendered and patriarchal, with males empowering some women personally (Barton, ; Lerum, ; 7. Julie M. Smith • Kristy Cooper • Kari Lerum Culturally, strip clubs are still subjects of contested .. perhaps because this was a new area of research. All four.

Yet even a cursory review turns up dozens of articles focusing on these issues and my own bibliography, which is certainly not exhaustive, lists almost books or articles on exotic dance. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

(PDF) Thinking Critically About Strip Club Research | Katherine Frank -

I receive numerous manuscripts to review making similar Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area, many of which fail to acknowledge the existing body of Genylemen. My experience is not unique; in discussions with colleagues, I have found others who wonder why so many articles and Adults Sweeden review manuscripts claim to be novel yet ask such similar questions.

Many of them focus on who exercises power in strip clubs and. Why does this question of empowerment versus exploitation arise so regularly and repetitively?

Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area does well-tread intellectual ground appear to researchers as endlessly novel? Why has are discourse around stripping not moved on to new territory, given the numerous studies already confirming the complexity of power relations at work?

I argue that research on stripping is implicated in a larger network of beliefs, meanings, and practices.

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Claims that there is a dearth of academic work on exotic dance, and that such research is not taken seriously, are linked and may illustrate cultural assumptions about the sex industry that both influence the questions asked by researchers and Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area way those questions are framed experientially and theoretically, leading researchers to experience their investigations as transgressive excursions into virgin territory, dangerous, rebellious, and stigmatized.

I conceive exotic dance including stripping, lap dancing, table dancing as a form of adult entertainment involving varying states of nudity, physical El Ornskoldsvik online, and constellations of erotic and personal services such as talk, fantasy, and companionship. Strippers may perform on stages or sell individualized dances to Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area.

While lap dancing allows for more contact with customers than table dancing, I still distinguish exotic dance from prostitution as a different form of consumption — although this line is Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area blurred in practice Kay, Leurm Lewis, a. Academic research and strip clubs Academic research on exotic dance is interdisciplinary, and strip clubs, strippers, and their customers have been studied using a variety of theoretical Meet someone in Enkoping and methodologies.

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Most research focuses on strip clubs catering to heterosexual men Gentleken featuring female dancers, which are the most prevalent venues; however, the research thus far on male stripping engages similar theoretical arguments, and I discuss both forms. Stripping has Ystad gay cruising spots analyzed for its links to other kinds of performance, art, dance, Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area burlesque Hanna,a; Liepe-Levinson,; Shteir, Psychologists have explored issues of self-esteem, relation- ship satisfaction, and the emotional and psychological stability of strippers Downs et al.

Dramaturgical analysis Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area been Downloaded from http: Social control of dancers and customers has been an area of interrogation, as well as how control is challenged or resisted Egan, ; Montemurro, The cultural meanings of nudity have been explored Calhoun et al.

The two primary angles of research are deviance studies and feminism.

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While these trajectories have been motivated by different assumptions and intellectual concerns, both have led to theorizations of stripping as labour. Working conditions in clubs have been studied Fischer, ; Holsopple, Although Sijuwade issued an apology cluubs, this is unfortunately still slipping through the review process. Researchers have explored issues of race, social class, and sexuality in strip club interactions, as well as gender Barton, ; Frank, a; McCaghy and Skipper, ; Pendleton, ; Trautner, ; Wood, More recent work considers customer characteristics and motiv- ation, Leruum neglected in favor of Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area focus on dancers Brewster, ; Egan,; Ericson and Tewksbury, ; Frank, Online dating service Varberg Montemurro et al.

Of course stigma still attaches to those associated with the sex industry; however, we need to develop a better understanding of Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area how that stigma is distributed, effected, How to know that a girl wants to kiss you countered, especially in relation to our research.

A case study Perhaps the most ubiquitous question in the strip club literature to date concerns gendered power — whether dancers are exploited or exploiters, subjects or objects, agentic or oppressed.

Researchers have obviously not ignored other aspects of exotic dance, and most of the academic work on stripping does not treat gendered power as the central problematic. However, this issue is discussed so repetitively that it is worth exploring in more depth.

A few widely cited feminist theorists pinpointed the sex industry as an example par excellence of male domination, shaping research in this area even though they have been repeatedly challenged and debunked. The work of Andrea Dworkin, Catherine Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area and Sheila Jeffreys is often invoked to claim that Lermu wield the power in any sexual exchange.

Activist researchers Melissa Farley, Janice Raymond and Donna Vanersborg train sex draw on such arguments in arguing for the abolition of the sex industry as a.

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Their claims Completely free dating in Vallentuna all sex work is violence against women and that it leads to more violence against women in other spheres afea influenced governmental policies on trafficking, prostitution, and sex work more generally Afea, ; Weitzer, As a critique of such generalizations, exotic dancers are sometimes declared, or declare themselves, the winners in Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area struggle for power.

As Hanna observes: Rather, the women. Schweitzer writes: Dichotomous views of gendered power — in either direction — emerge in the popular press, activist circles, and everyday debates about the sex industry: Are the men really the exploiters?

This angle never seems to lose its appeal. However, much of the academic literature on stripping has approached negotiations between dancers and customers in a more complex manner, problematizing ideas of power, control, agency, and subjectivity.

The most frequently recurring answer, across decade, cclubs and type of club, has been that stripping is neither wholly liberating nor wholly oppressive and that Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area and resistance come in different forms: Liepe-Levinson, Lerum, Wood, Bruckert, Murphy, At the same time, cashing in Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area these bodies may reinforce the same objectified constructions that oppress women.


The complicated relationship between women and Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area bodies is compounded for women who work as exotic dancers.

Wesely, Egan, Barton, Lewis explores autonomy and reciprocity among strip club employees in relation to power differentials I could go on. Because there are too many to consider in Craigslist free items Molndal and because my focus is on academic research, I have not even discussed exotic dancer memoirs Burana, ; Eaves,Lewin, ; Mattson,essays Dragu Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area Harrison,reflexive or observational pieces written for a more general audience Egan et al.

If I were to then begin chronicling broader chal- lenges to the anti-pornography or abolitionist feminist positions — made on the same grounds that women in sex work are not helpless, passive, victims of exploitation — this would be a book instead of a journal article.

I am not insinuating that the quoted researchers produce identical arguments; they have different areas of focus — interactive strategies, performances of gender, issues of body image, resistance and so on — and work in different disciplines, literatures, and theoretical conversations — sociology, anthropology, history, performance studies. I am also not critiquing their conclusions or suggesting that they should have written something different: I, too, believe that power relations in stripping are complex and require careful analysis.

One could say that the number of studies drawing similar conclusions across time periods, geographical regions, types of Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area, Free christian dating websites Helsingborg, methodologies, and theoretical Downloaded from http: My purpose here, however, Gentlemem to analyze this concern with power and agency as an example of how researchers are also part of the cultural milieu they study, of how theoretical influences and political concerns Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area with cultural beliefs and assumptions about sex work.

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Why power? So why are questions about power in strip clubs repeatedly asked, and answered, by feminist theorists over the last several decades in such similar ways?

And why do these questions have such a compelling hold on the imagination that they appear Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area endlessly new, even in academic research? Certainly, one part of the answer is that feminist theory itself deploys an analysis Kavlinge t massage power, gendered and otherwise, as a central problematic. A feminist focus on power in research on the Lerym industry was in part meant to rectify both the ongoing pathologization of sex workers why would any woman do this?

Should the motivations and goals of individuals involved in Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area sex industry be seen as deviance or in terms of more mainstream beliefs, aspirations, or practices? Attention to the nuances of power relations is also a necessary response to certain strains of radical feminist thought, as noted earlier, although the intensity of the response proves it to be more than a theoretical quibble.

Lwrum all of the quotations in Stafford private escorts previous section come from texts produced by women.

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Stripping encapsulates and dramatizes such personal and political issues through juxtapositions of public nudity and business suits, money and desire, youth and age, idealization and stigma, rebellion and safety.

I regularly receive emails from undergraduate or graduate students, almost always women, interested in studying power Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area in stripping.

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Questions of power in relation to sexuality and gendered exchanges seem fresh and Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area to Men from Tranas students; indeed, these questions and tensions already emerge within their everyday lives and stripping makes the contra- dictions of theory tangible.

Further, for many young women, worries about, and experiences of, not being taken seriously and being inappro- priately or appropriately sexualized, are part of growing up surrounded Downloaded from http: Some researchers, especially self-identified feminist women, are reflexive about their investments — erotic, personal, and intellectual — in strip club research.

Women are occasionally seen as customers in strip clubs featuring female DC, area Frank's research was conducted in five traditional clubs chosen to NO 3 TF ; Kari Lerum, “Twelve Step Feminism Makes Sex Workers Sick: 4. Occupations in the hierarchy of strip clubs are gendered and patriarchal, with males empowering some women personally (Barton, ; Lerum, ; 7. In a landmark case, the U.S. District Court ruled that Spearmint Rhino, a large “upscale gentlemen's club,” cannot classify dancers as.

The stories told are often remarkably similar. A relatively young woman is curious about feminist arguments about female sexuality and gendered power, well versed in theories of social and cultural inequalities.

In an article on strip clubs (see Reading 20), Kari Lerum describes how employees in an erotic dance club work to maintain specific definitions of the situation. Academic research and strip clubs Academic research on exotic dance is Social control of dancers and customers has been an area of interrogation, as well as . (Lerum, 8) Rather than understanding power as a monolithic social. In a landmark case, the U.S. District Court ruled that Spearmint Rhino, a large “upscale gentlemen's club,” cannot classify dancers as.

With a certain amount of trepidation, excitement, or rebelliousness, she ventures into a strip club. After overcoming her initial discomfort, she begins talking with the dancers, possibly becoming a dancer, and — not surprisingly — finds that strippers are not just passive toys for men but are instead negotiating complex networks of power and privilege.

She may develop an increasing awareness of how tensions between power and Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area play out on her own sexual and sexualized body. Lerym initial concerns, as well as her experiences as a researcher of strip clubs, which are tinged with emotional conflict and an air of self-discovery, thus drive and affect her consequent interactions with social theory.

She fanta- sizes about working as a stripper, recognizing that other individuals she encounters at the clubs already fantasized her to be a dancer Wesely, Tracking her emotional responses to Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area her academic work Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area the Gentlemen clubs in Lerum area of the strippers in the clubs, she explores how her excursions into strip clubs involve professional and personal risks Unfortunately, such discussions of positionality and researcher identity and experience are relatively scarce.

Structural and individual factors affect the ways that stories about research on sex work are Massage blowjob Mariestad or not: Is the complexity of power Meet Ornskoldsvik ladies Sweeden in strip clubs just a fact or simul- taneously an artifact of both the experience of studying in strip clubs and the cultural meanings that shape interpretations of our experiences?

In my study of customer motivations, I found that men often eroticized the boundary between safety and risk that wound its way through their interpretations of their encounters. The men expressed feelings of freedom, adventure, and excitement that were based on their fantasies about strip clubs and the marginalized individuals found in them, even as they often simultaneously recognized the safety of the interactions they had inside — this tension was part of the appeal Frank, a.